27  Living fossils

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Most basic types of the animal and plant world are found in fossils. Those species, which are found in deeper rock and are completely absent in the layers that follow, although some reappear in upper layers and are still alive today, are called living fossils. The existence of living fossils raises doubts as to the reliability of the current interpretations of the fossil record. Should different geological ages really be ascribed to the individual geological layers in which living fossils appear? The numerous finds of living fossils call this interpretation into question.

In past years, as more living fossils have been discovered, experts searched for possible explanations. Advocates of the theory of evolution concluded that these numerous living fossils have survived for a certain period of time in "geologically non-traditional habitats” (1).

"Geologically non-traditional habitats” is open to a wide range of interpretations. In addition, all the missing links which are supposed to unite the parallel running lineages of the fossil record to a single family tree could - indeed must - have developed even further over millions of years in these habitats.

Examples of living fossils in the plant kingdom:

- tree ferns (Cyatheales)
- the Ginkgo (“Temple Tree“, Ginkgo biloba)
- the Cathaya (argyrophylla)
- the Welwitschia (Welwitschia mirabilis, a naked-seed desert plant)
- the Wollemia (Wollemia nobilis, of the family Araucariaceae )
- the Metasequoia (Metasequoia glyptostroboides)

 Examples of living fossils in the animal kingdom:

- the Alligatorfish (Cociella crocodila)
- the Tuatara (Sphenodon punctatus)
- the Manjuari (Atractosteus tristoechus, a garpike)
- the Purple Frog (Nasikabatrachus sahyadrensis)
- Neopilina galatheae (a mollusc)
- the Nautilus (Nautilidae, the earliest form of cephalopod)
- the Horseshoe Crab (Limulidae)
- the Coelacanth (Latimeria)
- the Lamprey (Petromyzontidae)
- Monotremes (Monotremata: the spiny anteater (Protheria) and the platypus (Ornithorhynchus
- Triops, a brachiopod (2)
- the Devil’s Hole Pupfish (Cyprinodon diabolis)
- the Solenodon (Solenodontidae)

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(1)  W.J. Ouweneel, Evolution in der Zeitenwende, Christliche Schriftenverbreitung Hückeswagen, page 148.
(2)  Joachim Scheven, Null Evolution: Der Kiemenfuß, Leben Nr. 6 (Januar 1995), page 13.

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